Ambrit Rome International School
Language Policy Across the Curriculum (LPAC)
3rd Draft -May 2002 (with staff revisions)
This document has recently been revised by the LPAC Co-ordinator and the Administration.
The Dual Language Programmes for Grades 3-5 and Middle School have been modified and will be added to this document in due course.
Jennifer Kightley
EAL and LPAC Co-ordinator  
September 2008
Table of Contents
Introduction   (not yet available)     
I. Statement of philosophy 
What we do, how we do it & who we do it for
What is a dual-language education?
What are the roles of the English and Italian Languages?
What are the English and Italian language admissions criteria?
What is the role of Ambrit's administrators and the LPAC coordinator?
What is the role of the Ambrit faculty?
What is the role of the Ambrit community?
II. Ambrit's School-wide Language Policies
A dual-language for learning policy 
A dual-language development policy
A dual-language admissions & placement policy
A dual-language & assessment policy
A dual-language policy on technology & the creative arts (to be completed)
A dual-language linguistic & cultural awareness policy
III. Ambrit's English and Italian Language Policies
A dual-language oral skills policy
A dual-language reading policy
A dual-language writing policy
A dual-language curriculum policy
IV. Dual Language Curriculum    
Work in progress:  this will include unit plans for all content curriculum areas.
Appendix A:
Glossary  (text items in bold type )
Appendix B:
Ambrit dual language exemplary education checklist .(will be included in final  draft)
Appendix C:
*    indicates facilities or services which are not yet in place but which we recognise as being necessary to attain status as an exemplary dual language school and which we are actively working to provide.
Statement of philosophy
What we do
Ambrit students experience a dual-language education in which English is the primary language of instruction whilst Italian is maintained at grade level proficiency for native speakers and taught as an additional language for non-native speakers. The two languages are taught either as subjects or through subject matter content, thereby developing both basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS -the ability to communicate in an additional language) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP -the ability to think and to solve problems in the additional language) in both English and Italian. The ultimate instructional goal is the attainment of appropriate levels of proficiency in the two languages, taking into account those variables which affect language acquisition and development. 
One advantage of a dual-language education is that it promotes an appreciation of cultural and linguistic diversity. Ambrit students transcend their own cultural boundaries to become international and independent thinkers and communicators.  Ambrit International School also values bi/multilingualism among its students for the educational and professional opportunities it may open up for them in a global community.
How we do it
Ambrit teaches English and Italian as either first or additional languages through a dual-language curriculum.
A major goal of Ambrit International School is to provide an exemplary dual language curriculum through a language immersion approach. Under supportive conditions, this approach is one of the most effective ways of acquiring a additional language.
Supportive conditions include presenting the grade-level content through a variety of recommended instructional strategies, relating new material to students' life experiences, drawing attention to key specialist vocabulary, using a variety of assessment tools and implementing interactive group activities in an integrated curriculum.
English and Italian mainstream teachers, together with EAL and IAL teachers, work jointly as members of instructional teams to develop appropriate language experiences integrated with Ambrit's curriculum objectives.
Overall programme goals are:
·      high academic achievement;
·      language proficiency in English and Italian;
·      language maintenance and development in both languages;
·      systematic increase of language proficiency in both languages;
·      cross-cultural understanding within an international school population.
Ambrit administrators and faculty attend to these goals on two levels:
school-wide and in individual classrooms.
The first level considers the school's culture, policies and practice and includes:
·      school-wide policies and organisation;
·      home, school, and community partnerships;
·      curriculum and student assessment;
·      staff knowledge base and professional development;
·      development of language programmes.
The second level of programme implementation involves the following practices at the classroom level:
·      creating a challenging and responsive learning environment;
·      designing and delivering instruction;
·      providing a framework and context for instruction;
·      creating opportunities for including and implementing changes.
Exemplary criteria for measuring how good a job is being done at Ambrit International School is attached as an appendix to this document (will be included in final draft). We invite you to share our ongoing improvement efforts.
Who we do it for
Bilingualism is a phenomenon which eludes exact definition. While all bilinguals have knowledge of and are able to use two languages, not all of them do so in similar ways. Bilingualism is a continuum along which knowledge and use of two languages vary for individuals. A typology of Ambrit bilinguals consists of:
·      English-background students (both parents) with no Italian proficiency;
·      English-background students (both parents) with some Italian proficiency either as a result of an extended stay in Italy or attendance at a Italian school;
·      non-English background (both parents) "international" students who are English proficient as a result of living abroad;
·      non-English background, students who are not English-proficient as a result of always having lived in the home country and attended school in their L1 and are acquiring L2 and/or L3 at Ambrit;
·      Italian background students (both parents) with no English proficiency (admitted at age 3-5);
·      Italian background students (both parents) returning to Italy who have maintained Italian language proficiency but who are also English proficient;
·      Italian background students (both parents) returning to Italy whose Italian proficiency is very limited but who are English proficient;
·      cross-language students (one Italian speaking parent and one English speaking parent) who have acquired the two languages simultaneously from birth;
·      cross-language students (one Italian speaking parent and one English speaking parent) who have acquired only one language in the home but who aspire to bilingual proficiency;
·      cross-language students (one Italian or English speaking parent but other not Italian or English speaker) who are bilingual but not necessarily in Italian or English cross-language students (one parent-one language and one parent-another language but neither is English or Italian) who are bilingual but in two other languages with no English or Italian proficiency (admitted until grade;
·      cross-language students  (neither parent with English or Italian) who are bilingual in Italian and another language that is not English (admitted at age 3-5).
Ambrit's dual language programme accommodates students with varying levels of bilingualism.
What is a dual-language education?
A dual language education uses two languages in the curriculum with the expectation that its linguistically varied classroom population develops bilingual language proficiencies. At Ambrit the two languages are equally valued and serve to cultivate a variety of practices to construct a bilingual school ethos.
Student selection decisions are made at Ambrit in order to ensure its mixture and balance of language learners. All Ambrit students attain increasing levels of bilingualism and biliteracy in English and Italian. Native speakers of English and Italian make progress in their first languages and attain proficiency in their second languages. Students coming from non-English or Italian backgrounds find themselves immersed in both languages in the school and community. In addition to this focus on proficiency in the two languages, other Ambrit priorities include:
·      a learner-centred education emphasising successful academic achievement;
·      social integration into the school and community;
·      the building of a positive self-image for each child;
·      a positive experience to produce multicultural students.
 What are the roles of the English and Italian languages?
·      acquire information by listening to oral presentations, interpreting print and graphic material and observing and recording practical experiences;
·      convey information by telling stories and explaining ideas;
·      think logically  through inference, hypothesis, analysis, prediction and evaluation;
·      accomplish practical tasks either individually or by negotiating in small groups;
·      make decisions  by identifying  alternatives, evaluating evidence and determining  appropriate  actions;
·      work creatively by using ideas and materials inventively;
·      interact, responsibly and respectfully, with all members of the school community in order to realise the above, and to be able to function on a social level by, for example, making and responding to requests, following  and giving instructions and conversing.
The Dual-language programme has the following agenda.
Grades 1 and 2
Students who are non-native speakers of English and/or Italian follow the mainstream language programmes (with the support of EAL teachers and/or Italian language facilitators). They have the opportunity to acquire proficiency in both languages, to gain broader cultural perspectives and gradually become active participants in all mainstream activities.
Grades 3, 4, and 5 ~ Middle School 
The programmes in these two areas have recently been modified are due to be added to this document.
Italian as a first language maintains grade-level academic skills and literacy in alignment with the curriculum of the Italian Ministry of Education. Students expand and enrich language skills through other subjects such as math, history, geography and science. After completing this programme it is possible for the students to take the State examination at the end of 8th grade, which enables them to continue their education in the Italian educational system.
English and Italian admissions criteria
·      Admission is open to all students regardless of race, gender, creed or socio-economic background. 
·      Ambrit selects students with international backgrounds.
·      The director, through the admissions process, aims to create heterogeneous groups for each grade level.
·      The school makes every effort to maintain a student body composed of at least 20% English first language, 45% third language nationals and 35% Italian first language.
     Italian first language students are accepted:
·      in pre-school providing that one parent of the applicant speaks English;
·      at other levels if they have attended school abroad and require no EAL support.
    Third language speakers with no English:
·      are admitted through grade 6;
·      may on occasion be admitted in grade 7 and 8 if half-day, private EAL instruction is provided by the family.
English first language students are all admitted to the school.
What are the roles of Ambrit Administrators and the LPAC Co-ordinator?
The primary role of the administrators is to:
·      provide academic leadership for the school;
·      support professional development in the practices of the LPAC and;
·      uphold community liaison with parents regarding language issues and the school's language programmes.
The LPAC Co-ordinator has the charge to guide the Educational Leadership Team in areas relating to English and Italian language policies and programmes. The EAL Co-ordinator, who is also the LPAC Co-ordinator, is responsible for overseeing the implementation and revision of Ambrit language policy efforts. The following goals set out the range of activities that the appointee officially undertakes:
·      work with administrators and faculty to enhance the language programmes with a LPAC perspective;
·      work with the Curriculum Co-ordinator to develop thematically-integrated, language programme curricula;
·      promote effective language teaching and assessment practices;
·      maintain liaison between LPAC and faculty regarding language policy issues;
·      represent the school's language programmes at appropriate forums.
Responsibility for dual-language education does not rest exclusively with the LPAC Co-ordinator but rather is shared with Ambrit faculty and parents as outlined below.
What is the role of the Ambrit faculty?
Since learning and language are inextricably bound, the responsibility for the implementation of the LPAC belongs to every teacher.
Specific "facilitating" behaviours include:
·      acquiring a professional knowledge base in; second language acquisition processes, students' developmental dual-language practices, and familiarity with individual student's language learning cognitive styles;
·      integrating language instruction with content instruction (explicit attention is given to the syntactic and semantic features of language in the design of lessons);
·      making high-level academic content instructionally comprehensible (through the use of contextualisation strategies such as gestures, visual aids, maps, graphs,  manipulatives, drama, and songs);
·      creating classroom environments that are discourse-rich and process-oriented (plentiful opportunities for students to listen, read, speak, and write through interactive activities);
·      modelling metalinguistic learning strategies (specific actions second language learners use to become self-directed);
·      giving ongoing feedback to students on their linguistic and cognitive development through observation and measurement strategies;
·      holding exceptionally high linguistic and academic expectations for all students;
·      involving parents in the linguistic and academic development of their children;
·      recognising and supporting students' linguistic and academic needs and strengths; and
·      encouraging dispositions needed for life in an international world (e.g. empathy, flexibility, tolerance for ambiguity, respect for others' languages and cultures through ongoing language study).
What is the role of the Ambrit community?
The community is taken to mean the families of Ambrit's students who may or may not come from a bilingual background (see page 6). Bilingualism is a complex, multi-layered phenomenon, but from the child's point of view, the family and community is where it all begins. A number of parental actions will facilitate linguistic and academic success for Ambrit's students. They are:
·      showing and maintaining a positive attitude towards English and Italian;
·      associating closely with members of the language groups in community activities;
·      getting together with other parents to exchange ideas and reduce isolation;
·      modelling how much is to be gained by learning other languages;
·               discussing the ways to raise bilingual children and making it a family commitment;
·      developing and maintaining mother tongue literacy skills in the home;
·      encouraging and supporting children's second language acquisition;
·      supplying multilingual materials in the home;
·      keeping informed about dual-language issues in order to support Ambrit's language policy;
·      basing their expectations of the children and the school on reliable, up-to-date information about language acquisition and bilingualism.
Ambrit  School-wide  Language  Policies
A dual-language for learning policy
·      We recognise that language is the primary vehicle for learning and cognitive development and acknowledge its centrality to the curriculum.
·      We are provided with the opportunity to grow through in-service professional development.
·      We implement appropriate instructional strategies supported by facilitators and second language teachers in our classrooms.
·      We teach students to use active and experiential learning strategies appropriate for linguistically and cognitively diverse students.
·      We use specific instructional strategies for different kinds of learners and take into account their different backgrounds.
·      Our library facilities have resources in English and Italian to support integrated themes. *
·      Children practise Italian, the host country language, in school and in the local community, for example through field trips, by interacting with guest speakers, and in community service*.
·      We encourage parents to support their children's learning in both languages, for example through the parents' own language learning and by their demonstrating that they value other cultures and languages.
A dual-language development policy
 ·      We view on-going language development for all Ambrit students as the responsibility of all teachers.
·      We comprehend the individual variability inherent in the second language acquisition process.
·      We are familiar with the research on the variables of aptitude, personality, attitude, motivation, and learning style, all of which produce different rates of second language acquisition and ultimate levels of bilingual attainment.
·      We avoid blanket decisions and treat each student's language development within the context of our professional understanding and knowledge.
·      We facilitate language development through the provision of extensive opportunities to hear language in meaningful and comprehensible ways.
·      We facilitate language development by giving students extensive opportunities to practise authentic communication thereby responding to increasingly sophisticated and complex linguistic demands.
·      We facilitate language development through the provision of extensive opportunities for students to receive feedback regarding their own efforts.
·      We initiate small-group talk to extend interlanguage boundaries.
·      We carefully structure our classroom tasks and environments to provide the kind of setting where natural language acquisition takes place.
·      We teach and model language learning strategies (metacognitive, cognitive, and affective) to enable students to become self-directed and self-regulated learners.
·      We provide for language development beyond the classroom for students who require additional support, through the services of the resource department.
·      We refer students who require other specialist support or therapy to private practitioners.
A dual language class placement policy 
·      Ambrit supports a heterogeneous student population in its classrooms.
·      We aim to form classes that are balanced by gender, academic and language abilities in order to facilitate the appreciation of diversity, positive, social interchange and co-operative learning.
·      Teachers and specialists meet at the end of each academic year to decide student class placement for the following year.
·      We apply this class placement policy, at each grade level, in accordance with the above criteria and the school philosophy.
A dual-language assessment policy
 ·      We consider holistic performance more significant than knowledge of discrete linguistic items (i.e. what students can do over what they have memorised).
·      We use developmentally appropriate assessment strategies, which provide meaningful feedback to learners, their parents and ourselves.
·      We provide opportunities for students to demonstrate their mastery through a variety of assessment tools (e.g. graphic organisers, oral presentations, 3-D models and written tests).
·      We systematically keep track of the language acquisition of all students and use this knowledge to help students overcome difficulties and facilitate progress (e. g. portfolios, check lists, rubrics).
·      We use the observation of process and product and contextualised and decontextualised measurement strategies to evaluate students' participation, attitude, and application of language skills.
·      We regularly inform students of their progress as language users (e.g. peer and teacher conferencing, journal entries, checklists).
·      We have samples of students' work in folders and on display for parents to share.
·      We provide opportunities for our students to self-assess their learning (e.g. teacher-student conferences, self evaluation checklists, portfolios, peer assessments).
·      We use formative as well as summative evaluation in our assessments (i.e. what students can do over time, rather than only at the end).
·      We systematically review our assessment procedures and utilise our assessment findings to make informed decisions about students' programmes.
 A dual-language policy on Technology
 ·      Instruction takes place in both languages according to project requirements
·      We recognise the growing integration of technology with all areas of knowledge and application.
·      We strive for the integration of computer technology into the whole range academic and community activities at Ambrit.
·      We use technology as a tool to support classroom learning to promote academic development across a broad spectrum of content and skills areas including literacy skills, visual-spatial awareness, critical thinking, creative problem solving, global education and second language learning.
·      We ensure that students' demonstration of knowledge is not limited to writing and speaking but includes experimentation with different multimedia applications and presentations.
A dual language policy on Music and the Creative Arts
·      We recognise that the music and creative movement programmes are important media for language development.
·      We use music and creative movement, in connection with history, language arts, mathematics and the sciences to reinforce learning in those areas, via cross-curricular projects involving both the English and Italian curriculum.
·      We promote the appreciation of musical genres of all cultures, especially Italian and English, and in doing so, employ both languages to further their understanding.
·      We develop and promote the expressive skills of movement, music and language composition, and musical performance.
·      We include experimentation with vocal, theatrical and instrumental music thereby extending the opportunities for linguistic expression and development.
A dual-language linguistic and cultural awareness policy 
·      We provide information about aspects of speech including phonology, pronunciation, stress and emphasis, rhyme and rhythm, tone and intonation.
·      We provide information about aspects of word forms including morphology, inflections, derivations, dictionary skills, synonymy, compound words, metaphors, idioms, and puns.
·      We provide information about aspects of language structures including verb tenses and forms, adjectives, adverbs, nouns, pronouns, demonstratives, number, negatives, word order, modals, prepositions, sentence types and functions.
·      We provide information about aspects of discourse including paragraph form and function, referential  meaning, ambiguity, cohesion, coherence, conjuncts, boundary markers and lexical collocation
·      We provide information about aspects of writing including letter shape and form, alphabet, dictionaries and references, spelling patterns, and punctuation conventions.
·      We provide information about how other languages differ in terms of language rules and communicative conventions (and cultivate the comparison and contrast of these forms between English and Italian).
·      We observe and record children's use of these forms of knowledge and find salient ways to give them feedback.
·      We develop skills in children's self-monitoring and self-correction.
·      We promote awareness of the diverse types of discourse and language varieties found within the community.
·      We advocate and provide opportunities for the study and acquisition of languages in addition to English and Italian (French, German, Spanish and Mandarin) from the 6th grade on as part of the After School Programme , at no additional cost .
·      Language lessons in both English and Italian are offered to Ambrit staff and Ambrit parents.
·      We nurture a global perspective of cultural events not only in our language classes, but also throughout our academic programmes.
·      We provide guidelines for parents of minority cultures, encouraging them to use the mother tongue in the home.
·      We also offer the possibility of the promotion of minority languages at school by providing facilities (room, cupboard-space etc), for after-school lessons.
·      We allow for participation of diverse-culture representatives in a decision-making capacity regarding social and cultural activities.
·      We avoid methods of teaching and assessment that discriminate against students from diverse minority backgrounds.
·      We have dual-language library facilities for use by both students and staff. *
·      We appoint staff from various cultures.
·      We address multi-cultural themes.
·      We require new parents to fill in a form upon enrolment, giving us a detailed language profile of their child/children.
Ambrit's English and Italian Language Policies
A dual-language oral skills policy
·      We recognise first and second language learners as active constructors of meaning.
·      We work from learners' current understanding and experiences: we move from the concrete to the abstract.
·      We recognise the importance of providing comprehensible input in order to foster students' listening skills.
·      We emphasise oral language in every learning situation in order to generate formal, informal, and social language use.
·      We allow students "readiness time" to speak and, subsequently, we develop a safe atmosphere in which they are encouraged to interact with one another through peer-peer talk.
·      We use "open" questions in order to motivate students to speculate and explore in their first or second language.
·      We understand that bilinguals use both of their linguistic systems (i.e. through the development of their interlanguage and code-switching) in their dual language development.
·      We encourage students to view "mistakes" as a natural part of first language development or second language acquisition.
·      We do not overtly correct errors but find ways to provide explicit feedback (i.e. paraphrase, metalinguistic awareness activities).
·      We promote comprehension through oral language by using activities like drama, art, books, videos, field trips, visitors, debates, discussion groups, group and pair work, sports, music and rehearsed presentations.
·      We develop interactive activities where descriptive/explanatory talk is expected and where respect for what others have to say is emphasised.
·      We keep track of students' communicative competence.
A dual-language reading policy
·      We continually familiarise ourselves with research about the teaching of reading in a dual-language education environment.
·      We recognise that the need for tracking has no real place in a dual-language programme, so we edge commercial reading schemes and basals away from centre stage.
·      We recognise that free voluntary reading correlates highly with increased dual-language proficiency so we encourage students to read as a means to learn.
·      We expose learners to a wide variety of reading materials and allow for choice, time and space to do this.
·      We use instructional approaches which are bilingual friendly and process-oriented.
·      We use group deletion work, group sequencing work, and group prediction work in order to develop pragmatic competence among dual-language readers.
·      We design suitable pre-reading, guided reading and post-reading tasks to activate learners' content schema, to inspire student response, and to move on from simple recall response.
·      We read (aloud) and talk about books with students and urge them to talk about the books they read with one another in order to provide opportunities for discussion.
·      We avoid excessive correction of oral reading errors but keep track of them and find ways to give feedback to students (e.g. miscue analysis or running records).
·      We monitor students' strategies in coping with reading tasks and teach new ones based on our observations.
·      We use a systematic approach in helping students identify difficult, specialised vocabulary which is learned in context and experientially across the curriculum.
·      We organise reading conferences and work actively with groups of learners.
·      We design library and internet research projects and check that students possess the necessary research skills.
·      We display collections of books on topics related to what we are studying and at various levels so that students can read for pleasure when other work is finished.
A dual-language writing policy 
·      We teach writing as a process.
·      We use oral language and drawing as a precursor to writing to generate understanding, purpose and motivation.
·      We integrate writing with other activities in all curricular areas.
·      We encourage writing as a communicative process (e.g. letter-writing, journals, recordings, reports and displays).
·      We understand that writing is a process which serves to clarify thinking.
·      We provide opportunities to write using different genres.
·      We model the writing process through all of its stages (as a helper, a facilitator and as a writer ourselves).
·      We find time for all students to write everyday.
·      We give all students the opportunity to publish their work to real audiences (self, peer group, teacher as examiner, teacher as trusted adult, parents and school web site).
·      We display written work in our classrooms and give time for the students to read other people's work accordingly.
·      We encourage parents to look regularly at what their children have written.
·      We emphasise the importance of good quality work and model word-processing skills where appropriate.
·      We monitor students' writing for correction and extension of ideas and skills on a collaborative basis.
·      We monitor students' abilities and the strategies they use in coping with writing tasks and teach new strategies based on our observations.
·      We keep records of the students' writing to indicate growth in literacy competence (e.g. portfolios).
A dual-language curriculum policy
·      We follow a curriculum which prepares students for the social and academic language needs of their school environment.
·      We organise the content around themes that integrate a number of subject areas (e.g. English, Italian, math, science, social studies, art and music).
·      We select themes that are appropriate to the interest levels of the age group concerned and which facilitate the provision of opportunities for natural language usage.
·      We use this theme-based, integrative curriculum in order to support and extend important concepts.
·      We use specific subject language in classroom activities.
·      We provide opportunities for learners to use language in different ways (e.g. describing, re-telling, explaining, asking for clarification).
·      We identify and introduce the linguistic structures and vocabulary needed for access to an activity.
·      We incorporate socio-cultural aspects unique to dual-language learners.
·      We use instructional resources compatible with a theme-based, integrative curriculum.
·      We specify the learning outcomes of instructional activities.
·      We specify the language skills practised in instructional activities.
·      We use supportive and organising tools to challenge learners to go beyond their current thinking and to increase their capacities for first and second language development.
·      We regularly assess the attainment of concept formation and increased language proficiency.
·      We continually revise our curriculum on the basis of our assessment findings.
Appendix A  - Glossary:
Ambiguity: The general sense of this term, referring to a word or sentence which expresses more than one meaning, is found in linguistics, but several types of ambiguity are recognised, e.g. grammatical or structural, lexical.
Basals: Basal readers/basal reading series are reading textbooks, much like a history or math textbook. Instead of students reading "real world" books, the basals contain stories in which limited vocabulary is introduced in a controlled fashion from certain word lists. (Think Dick and Jane.) There are comprehension questions and student assignments following each story or poem. Often, supplementary materials such as workbooks and activity sheets accompany the series.
BICS: basic interpersonal communicative skills
Boundary Markers: Symbols used in transformational grammar to indicate boundaries between structural markers.
CALP: cognitive academic language proficiency
Code-switching: the term used to describe any switch among languages in the course of a conversation, whether at the level of words, sentences or blocks of speech. Code-switching most often occurs when bilinguals are in the presence of other bilinguals who speak the same languages (Baker & Jones, 1998).
Coherence: unity in a text or discourse which makes sense because its elements do not contradict each other.
Cohesion: the use of language forms to indicate semantic relations between elements in discourse (can be grammatical or lexical).
Conjuncts (conjunction): A term used in the classification of words to refer to refer to an item or process whose primary function is to connect words or other construction.
Constructors of meaning: Learners actively construct meaning as they encounter new information and use their background knowledge as an initial frame for relating to new information. They then use cognitive strategies as tools to help build meaning from the new information and from their background knowledge.
Deletion Work: cloze procedure or gap-filling exercises
Discourse: a unit or piece of connected speech or writing that is longer than a conventional sentence
Facilitator: member of a classroom team who facilitates access of second language learners to the mainstream curriculum.
Integrated Curriculum: the choice of topics or themes taught are interdisciplinary, (i.e. the activities used in teaching incorporate the various subject areas).
Integrative Curriculum: the choice of topics or themes taught aim to make some links across several subject areas where possible.
Interlanguage: An intermediate form of language used by second language learners in the process of learning a language. Interlanguage contains some transfers or borrowing from the first language, and is an approximate system with regard to grammar and communicating meaning.
Language-learning Strategies: procedures or techniques that learners can use to facilitate a language learning.
Learning Strategies ~
·      social/affective: interacting with others for learning or using affective control for learning.       
·      cognitive: manipulating the material to be learned through rehearsal, organisation, or elaboration
·      metacognitive: strategies that involve the processes of planning, self-monitoring, problem-solving, and evaluating learning.
Lexical Collocation: A term used in linguistics to refer to the habitual co-occurrence of individual lexical items.
Metalinguistic: using language to describe language. Thinking about one's language.
Miscue analysis: a type of reading assessment that provides information on decoding skills, reading strategies,       and comprehension while students read aloud.
Referential Meaning: the actual object or concept referred to when a certain noun is used (e.g. 'table'  can be a flat-topped object or a chart).
Tracking: or streaming where students are grouped according to ability.
Appendix B:
Ambrit dual language exemplary education checklist .(will be included in final  draft)
Appendix C - Bibliography
Baker, C. 2000. A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to Bilingualism, Multilingual Matters.
Baker, C., &  Prys Jones, S. 1998. Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Multilingual Matters.
Chamot, A.U., Barnhardt, S., Beard El-Dinary, P., Robbins, J. 1999. The Learning Strategies Handbook. Longman.
Chamot, A.U., O'Malley J.M. 1994, The Calla Handbook, Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Addison-Wesley.
Crystal, D.1980, A First Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Andre Deutsch.
O'Malley J.M., Valdez Pierce, L.1996. Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners.  Addison-Wesley.

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